Because of the problems inherent in fee-for-service Medicaid, many states over the years requested waivers from the freedom of choice requirement to allow them to enter Medicaid recipients in managed care programs. Finally, the federal government amended the Medicaid statute with the 1997 Balanced Budget Act to permit states to require Medicaid recipients to enroll in a Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) program. A waiver is still needed to require Medicare recipients also receiving Medicaid, Native Americans, and special needs children to enroll in an MMC program.
Currently over half of Medicaid recipients receive care through these programs. MMC programs are similar to managed care programs used by the privately insured. The two most common are:
- The Risk-Based Model: Under this model, the MMC program is paid a fixed monthly fee per enrollee and assumes some or all the financial risk for a broad range of services. About four-fifths of Medicaid MMC enrollees receive services under this model.
- Fee-For-Service Primary Care Case Management (PCCM): Under this model, a health care provider acts as”gatekeeper” to approve and monitor the services given to MMC enrollees. These providers do not assume any financial risk and are paid a perpatient monthly case management fee.